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Young Ninja Group (ages 3-5)

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Beau Ramirez
Beau Ramirez

Bender Gestalt Test Cards: A Guide to Visual-Motor Assessment

Stimulus CardsIncludes nine stimulus cards used for the entireage range for the test. Cards were reproduced from hand-drawndesigns on thin cardboard stock. Includes sixteen stimulus cardsdivided into two tests, each containing an enhanced version of theoriginal nine designs and additional designs deemed more suitablefor the age ranges covered. The additional stimulus cards aredesigned to extend the measurement scale at the lower and higherends. Four additional designs are used for subjects 4 through 7years of age. Three additional designs are used for subjects 8 to85+ years of age. Stimulus cards are reproduced from mechanicallydrawn designs for greater clarity and precision and are printed ondurable plastic that can be cleaned easily.

bender gestalt test cards pdf download

ReferencesBeery, K. E. (1997). The Beery-Buktenica DevelopmentalTest of Visual-Motor Integration: 4th Edition, Revised. Parsippany,NJ: Modern Curriculum Press. Bender, L. (1938). A visual motorgestalt test and its clinical use. American OrthopsychiatricAssociation, Research Monographs (No. 3). New York: AmericanOrthopsychiatric Association. Bender, L. (1946). Instructions forthe use of the Visual-Motor Gestalt Test. New York: AmericanOrthopsychiatric Association. Brannigan, G. G., & Brunner, N.A. (1989). The Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test forPreschool and Primary School Children. Brandon, VT: ClinicalPsychology Publishing. Brannigan, G. G., & Brunner, N. A.(1996). The Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test forPreschool and Primary School ChildrenRevised. Brandon, VT: ClinicalPsychology Publishing. Brannigan, G. G., & Brunner, N. A.(2002). Guide to the qualitative scoring system for the ModifiedVersion of the Bender-Gestalt Test. Springfield, IL: Thomas.Brannigan, G. G., & Decker, S. L. (2003). Bender Visual-MotorGestalt Test, Second Edition. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.Hutt, M. L. (1945). A tentative guide for the administration andinterpretation of the Bender-Gestalt Test. U.S. Army AdjutantGenerals School. Hutt, M. L. (1969). The Hutt Adaptation of theBender-Gestalt Test (2nd ed.). New York: Grune & Stratton.Hutt, M. L. (1977). The Hutt Adaptation of the Bender-Gestalt Test(3rd ed.). New York: Grune & Stratton. Hutt, M. L. (1985). TheHutt Adaptation of the Bender-Gestalt Test (4th ed.). New York:Grune & Stratton. Hutt, M. L., & Briskin, G. J. (1960). Theclinical use of the revised Bender Gestalt Test. New York: Grune& Stratton. Koppitz, E. M. (1963). The Bender-Gestalt Test foryoung children. New York: Grune and Stratton. Koppitz, E. M.(1975). The Bender-Gestalt Test for young children (Vol. 2). NewYork: Grune and Stratton. Lacks, P. (1984). Bender-Gestaltscreening for brain dysfunction. New York: Wiley. Lacks, P. (1999).Bender Gestalt screening for brain dysfunction (2nd ed.). New York:Wiley. Sattler, J. (1992). Assessment of Children (3rd ed.). SanDiego: Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher Inc.

As currently employed, the Bender-Gestalt Test consists of nine geometric figures, each of which is presented on a card about the size of the usual index card. Although there have been a number of modifications of these figures, two sets of cards, one prepared by Bender and the other by Hutt (see below), are the ones currently in widest use. These simple materials, the ease and rapidity of their administration, and the increasingly rich clinical and research evidence which have become available, have made this instrument very popular among clinicians. In general, two different, but complementary, approaches have been employed in the use of the test: 1) as a device to assess disturbance in the perceptual-motoric aspects of behavior, usually with some objective measure of the severity of this disturbance; and 2) as a projective technique to assess various aspects of personality functioning, sometimes with objective scores, sometimes with single or configurational indices, and sometimes with careful, clinical evaluation of all aspects of test behavior as well as test performance.

THE Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test: The Bender Gestalt Test consists of nine cards each displaying an abstract design. Bender (1938) adapted these stimulus designs from those originally used by Wertheimer (1923). Bender (1938) saw her test as being particularly relevant to the assessment of cognitive maturation and the diagnosis of organically based pathologic. When administering the test, the examiner presents the cards to the test- taker who is required to copy each design as accurately as possible. No time limits are imposed. Standard administration requires the designs to be copied on a blank unlined sheet of paper with HP pencil. The individual's designs are then rated on their relative degree of accuracy and overall integration. The following instructions are then given to the

examinee: ''I am going to show you some cards (points to), one at a time. Each card has a simple drawing on it. I want you to copy them on the paper as well as you can. Work in any way that is best for you. This is not a test of artistic ability but try to copy them as accurately as possible''. The performance of participants in Bender Gestalt Test scored based on Lacks' scoring system (5). Generally, 3 or fewer errors indicate an absence of deficits or brain impairment; 4 errors is a borderline score; and 5 or 6 errors provide some evidence for brain impairment. The greater the number of errors, the greater the evidence for some type of brain impairment: strong evidence with 7 or 8 errors.

The Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (abbreviated as Bender-Gestalt test) is a psychological test used by mental health practitioners that assesses visual-motor functioning, developmental disorders, and neurological impairments in children ages 3 and older and adults. The test consists of nine index cards picturing different geometric designs. The cards are presented individually and test subjects are asked to copy the design before the next card is shown. Test results are scored based on the accuracy and organization of the reproductions.

Reasoning that providing a test subject with several sheets of blank paper, a pencil, and explaining that "you are going to be shown some cards, one at a time, with a simple design on each of them and you are to copy them as well as you can. Do it any way you think is best for you. This is not a test of artistic ability, but try to copy the designs as well as you can" would confront the subject with an ambiguous problem to solve. With no further instructions and the response of "do it in any way you think is best" to any questions, the subject was forced to interpret the task and proceed in a manner that was consistent with the individual's accustomed personality style.

The test has been used as a screening device for brain damage. Bender herself said it was "a method of evaluating maturation of gestalt functioning children 4-11's brain functioning by which it responds to a given constellation of stimuli as a whole, the response being a motor process of patterning the perceived gestalt."

All these tests are fully validated and widely acclaimed throughout the world. Norms are developed for the 20 to 50 years age group; following a factorial sampling design of 2 X 3 X 5 [two levels of sex, three levels of education, and five levels of age]. It gives a global rating of cognitive dysfunction based on 19 test variables and estimates well accepted/validated psychological concepts of (a) intelligence, (b) memory, and (c) gestalt formation of perceptual acuity. It provides a profile of the current cognitive functioning of the subject.

The Nahor Benson Test is a drawing test that helps measure the functioning of the right hemisphere specifically related to the parieto-occipital lobe. The parietal lobe helps understand spatial relationships and the occipital lobe involves visual-perceptual acuity. The test consists of 8 cards, out of which the first 5 cards contain a design each and the rest of the 3 cards contain the instructions to be followed to draw an object. The 5 cards at the start are based on developmental patterns, and the 4th and 5th cards assess the copying ability with respect to depth perception. These cards help assess if there is an organic brain dysfunction and the extent of it. In people with organic brain dysfunctions, there is a diminishing of the thing learned earlier in life. The designs from 1 to 4 in the Nahor Benson Test are disturbed when the person has a lesion in the right parieto-occipital region. The other 3 cards require understanding, consolidating, and following the instructions which help assess any left hemisphere-related disturbances, especially that in transference from left to the right hemisphere.

This test consists of 8 cards. 5 of the cards have certain designs. You are required to copy these designs as precisely as you can. For the last 3 cards, you will find the instructions on the cards. You are required to follow the instructions as precisely as you can and draw. You can clarify any queries you have.

9. Picture completion test [30] is a measure of visuoconceptual ability, visual organization and visuo-conceptual reasoning. It consists of 20 cards with pictures of different objects with a missing feature. The participants are required to name or point out to the missing feature. Number of correct responses comprises the score.


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