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Young Ninja Group (ages 3-5)

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Beau Ramirez
Beau Ramirez

Perception - Season 2 VERIFIED

Over six episodes, we explore those flaws by looking closely at the spaces where public perception doesn't align with the realities of the system. We dive into everything from the history of mass incarceration, to the role imprisonment plays in American society today, to the wide-ranging efforts to transform the institution. Join us for a brief discussion about our reporting, and what to expect in "Perception Gaps: Locked Up."

Perception - Season 2

Jess: I do. But before we get into the season, I want our listeners to know that "Perception Gaps" is your baby. You came up with it and executed it last time. What made you decide to do a second season?

Sam: Well, originally, this podcast was only designed to be a limited series of 10 episodes. But what we realized was that people really loved it and we continued to get a ton of positive feedback. Well, after the season ended with people just asking us to make more episodes. So given that and then the current climate, we realized that right now it's especially tough to know what's true and what isn't. This podcast creates that space for people to acknowledge that they may not know everything, and that's OK.

When we decided to do a second season earlier this year, I approached you guys, Henry and Jess, to see if you wanted to collaborate with me. And you said yes. And it's been awesome. It's allowed us to do things this season that we couldn't do last season, such as on the ground reporting, and to really hyper-focus on one topic.

Speaking of which, Henry, I'd really love to hear your perspective on this. You're our criminal justice reporter. So when I approached you about collaborating on "Perception Gaps," what were your thoughts on tackling this issue and how has it been for you reporting this season?

Sam: The easiest thing you can do is go to our website, You can listen to all the episodes. They're right on that page. And you can also find links to your favorite podcast players. You can also sign up for our free newsletter to get the episode sent right to your inbox each week. We include bonus materials behind the scenes takes, other articles, photos, videos. Again, the website is Jess, Henry: Before we leave our listeners, is there anything else that you want to add?

Sam: And I do want to say real quick: to all of our returning listeners, thank you. Because without you and your support, we wouldn't be here doing a second season. And to all of our new listeners, we're really excited to have you. So, again, you can find everything at

Influenza is an infectious disease with a high impact on the population in terms of morbidity and mortality, but despite International and European guidelines, vaccination coverage rates among healthcare workers (HCWs) remain very low. The aim of the present study was to evaluate influenza vaccination adherence in the three Sicilian University Hospitals of Catania, Messina, and Palermo and to understand the attitudes and perceptions of vaccinated healthcare workers and the main reasons for vaccination refusal. A cross-sectional survey through a self-administered questionnaire was conducted during the 2019/2020 influenza season. Overall, 2356 vaccinated healthcare workers answered the questionnaire. The main reason reported for influenza vaccination adherence during the 2019/2020 season was to protect patients. Higher self-perceived risk of contracting influenza and a positive attitude to recommending vaccination to patients were significantly associated with influenza vaccination adherence during the last five seasons via multivariable analysis. Fear of an adverse reaction was the main reason for influenza vaccine refusal. In accordance with these findings, Public Health institutions should develop and tailor formative and informative campaigns to reduce principal barriers to the immunization process and promote influenza vaccination adherence among HCWs.

With its 2nd season finale about to air, the TNT drama PERCEPTION is finishing off a strong season of stories that tugged at our hearts and teased our brains as we saw how disorders of the mind can create unexpected results. Guilt, love, paranoia all factor into how we perceive the world we live in; and PERCEPTION showed us how that can be amplified and used both in positive and negative ways.

The 2-part second season finale of PERCEPTION introduces what seems to be a simple story of a young woman experiencing PTSD from her time in the military, which leads her to commit increasingly destructive crimes. But the root of her problems originates from an illness that only Dr. Daniel Pierce recognizes. Yet as they discover, just diagnosing a person does not truly explain how they got the condition.

Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

Metabolic profiling indicates an accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and fatty acids as well as the consumption of amino acids during fruit development. Subsequently alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, anthocyanins, ketones, esters, and furanones increase during fruit ripening [7]. Many of these chemical classes serve as precursors to volatile synthesis [21], thus facilitating a metabolic flux through biosynthetic pathways for increased and diverse volatile emissions in ripe strawberry fruit, predominantly furans, acids, esters, lactones, and terpenes [8]. Over 350 volatile compounds have been identified across Fragaria [22], however within a single fruit, far fewer compounds are detectable and even less contribute to aroma perception.

Here we exploit the genetic and within-season variability of fruit to provide as many unique strawberry experiences as possible to a large sample of consumers. To enhance the range and diversity of flavors and chemical constituents 35 genetic backgrounds were included: public and private cultivars representing a large proportion of commercial strawberry acreage in North America, University of Florida advanced breeding selections, and European cultivars (Fig. 1). Parallel assays of ripe strawberry samples quantify fruit traits of TA, pH, and fruit firmness, as well as the content of malic acid, citric acid, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and 81 volatile compounds of diverse chemical classes. The contributions of these attributes to fruit quality is determined by simultaneously evaluating samples for perceived sensory intensities of sourness, sweetness, and strawberry flavor, as well as the hedonic responses of texture liking and overall liking by consumer panelists. Data analyses determine significant biochemical and consumer response differences between early and late season fruit, gross variation of strawberry experiences, and factors influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit consumption using a psychophysics approach. Ultimately, an effect of particular volatile constituents to enhance sweetness intensity independent of sugar content of fruit was found. These findings have great implications in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables, as well as for the food industry as a whole.

The inventory of 54 fully ripe (Fig. 1C) unique strawberry samples (35 cultivars, 12 harvests, two seasons) assayed for TA, pH, firmness, as well as the concentrations of malic acid, citric acid, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and quantity of 81 volatile compounds is reported (Table S2). Cluster analysis of relative chemical composition of all samples and derived hierarchy of both cultivar and metabolite relatedness is displayed (Fig. 2). The vertical dendrogram (Fig. 2) demonstrates the lack of relatedness among volatile compound quantities through large distances of initial segments, as well as the high number of clusters. Slightly more structure is observed among the samples, horizontal dendrogram (Fig. 2), due to genetic or environmental effects.

Elevated texture liking, sweetness intensity, and strawberry flavor intensity significantly increases overall liking, while sourness intensity alone has no detectable relationship to overall liking (Fig. 3A-D). Integration and synthesis of response to sensory signals of taste, olfaction, and tactile sensation constitute an eating experience [9] and drive overall liking. The senses of taste and olfaction sample the chemicals present in food e.g. sugars, acids, and volatile chemical compounds. These elicitors attenuate the perception and hedonics of food [38], [39]. Ratings of strawberry fruit are correlated to specific chemical or physical attributes, especially sweetness (Fig. 3B) and flavor intensity (Fig. 3D), the two greatest drivers of overall liking. 041b061a72


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